The microbiome is the sum of the many trillion microorganisms that live on and in our organism. The microbiome consists primarily of bacteria, but also contains fungi, viruses and primordial bacteria. According to expert calculations, we have around 2-3 kg of bacteria in our intestines.

This is extrapolated to over 30 trillion bacteria consisting of over 1,000 types of bacteria that live and interact in us—these are more bacteria than the body's own cells. Not only the number, but also the diversity of bacteria is decisive. Most of these microorganisms are symbionts, but some of them are also harmful. The microorganisms in the gut are particularly important for the health of the entire body. They have an unbelievably great influence on health, illness, metabolic processes and which or how much food components are absorbed from the intestine into the body. This explains why the microbiome influences the immune system, the brain, body weight (obesity), diabetes II, food intolerance, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, cancer, hardening of the arteries and thus cardiovascular diseases. Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are also most likely related to the composition of the microbiome. Two strains of bacteria have recently been isolated that have been shown to cause colon cancer. The microbiome is constantly changing with our lifestyle habits, with what we eat, with our lifestyle and also with the drugs we take. Stabilizers, emulsifiers (plasticizers), nanoparticles (titanium dioxide) and other legal food additives act in our body like a washing-up liquid that destroys the intestinal flora (microbiome) in up to 80%. These unhealthy additives are contained in a whole range of different foods, including some that under normal circumstances would not be classified as primarily harmful to health: chewing gum, ice cream, especially soft ice cream, ready meals, desserts, soft drinks, frozen meals, mayonnaise, pudding, margarine, Sausage, ...

In actual practice, the treatment strategies do not ideally lie less in the modification of problematic nutritional behavior, but rather in drug therapy, psychotropic drugs, antibiotics or hypnosis to improve the situation for the patient. In addition, an uncritical application of the increasingly popular low-FODMAP diet, in which the intake of fermentable fiber is reduced, can trigger or increase a reduction (in biodiversity) of the microbiome. There are a number of other factors that significantly influence the microbiome and thus not only the health of the intestine, but the health of the entire organism: How did the birth take place? - Naturally or with a caesarean section. Has the person been breastfed, are / were there pets? Hygienic measures, disinfectants, place of residence, geographical / rural / urban and socio-economic status are also decisive. In other words, we cannot live a day without a microbiome and a bad mix and / or a reduction in the biodiversity of germs can be the cause of a whole range of different diseases. We only know a fraction of the germs that are present in the microbiome and we know little about the individual mechanisms of action. The 16S rDNA sequencing has provided more information about the diversity of germs in the microbiome in recent years and forms an essential basis for further research.

Hippocrates of Kos was already aware of the fact that health comes from the intestines 2500 years ago and he coined the following sentences: "The intestine is the father of all tribulation."

In addition to a healthy, diverse microbiome, a high-fiber, high-fiber diet is essential for a healthy intestine, for a healthy overall organism, and for a healthy life. Dietary fibers are insoluble, vegetable fibers that, together with water, facilitate digestion, accelerate intestinal transit and prevent constipation. This fiber cannot be digested by the enzymes and / or bacteria in the gut. In contrast to this non-fermentable fiber, many fermentable fiber (so-called prebiotics, such as inulin or oligofructose) should be incorporated into the menu. Cereals, asparagus, chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, onions, garlic, alant, leeks, dandelions, parsnips, salsify, artichokes, legumes, cereals and bananas contain higher amounts of these substances. Resistant starch is also considered a prebiotic. This is formed when rice or potato el can be cooled for several hours and then consumed. Prebiotics are largely responsible for the stability of the microbiome and have a central, appetite-suppressing effect through their breakdown products, in particular through the butyrate. In addition, there is an improvement in a lipid metabolism disorder, insulin resistance (diabetes II) and a reduction in fat deposits in the liver (NASH). Akkermansia is currently one of the most interesting representatives of the microbiome when it comes to reducing inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and diet-related metabolic disorders.

In summary, a diet that improves the microbiome is much more than just a high-fiber diet with fruit, vegetables and whole grain products. It is also important here to increase the fermentable fiber (prebiotics) and thus to nourish the microbiome well every day (prebiotics are the food for probiotics) and to keep them in balance. “You are what you eat.” Initially, side effects such as flatulence and diarrhea can arise. This is normal and should regulate itself again within a short time. Depending on the overall factors, such as general condition, age, concomitant diseases, etc., the change in diet must be adjusted accordingly.